Four-Wheel-Drive Is Ideal for the Winter
- Published on: 27.02.2019.
An four-wheel-drive is an ideal option for winter road conditions, especially if the roads are slippery or frozen.
The first vehicle with an four-wheel-drive was constructed in 1893. It was a tractor with a steam engine developed by an English engineer Bramah Joseph Diplock. After that, in 1900. Ferdinand Porsche has demonstrated an electric vehicle with an all-wheel drive while the first automobile that had an internal combustion engine and an all-wheel drive was the racing two-seater Spyker 60 H.P. from 1903., constructed by the brothers Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker from Amsterdam.
The engineers quickly realized that to drive safely on certain terrains it often wasn't enough to have only one driving axle but, because of the high expenses in production, a certain amount of time had to pass before the four-wheel-drive would come to be in automobiles. Today, most automobile production companies offer four-wheel-drive on all their models but the reason why it has still not spreaded out is because of its continuous high price. The price difference between the same models that have a front or back wheel drive and those with an four-wheel-drive is rather big and can sometime reach up to several tens of thousand cunas.
With front wheel drive cars, the engine power is usually transferred through the gear shift on the differential which then transfers the power if needed on the front left or right wheel. Because these are the wheels with which the car is also steered, the front wheel drive is more complicated in construction than the back wheel drive. With the back wheel drive, the engine power is transferred to the driving axle which then through the differential transfers the power on the left or right back wheel. Because of this long journey from the engine to the wheel, as well as the driving axle big mass, with a back wheel drive engine a lot more power is lost than in the front wheel drive models. This is one of the reasons why the back wheel drive is rarely used in smaller cars. The four-wheel-drive is a far more complicated system because it transfers the power to the front as well as on the back wheels and because of that different systems are used. They are mostly built of an electronically controlled and a mechanically driven coupler which transfers the power according to need between the front and the back axle. Of course, on every axle there is a differential as well.
An four-wheel-drive combines the safety of the front wheel drive and the sport characteristics of the back wheel drive. It merges the best from the two worlds in a combination that neither the front nor the back wheel drive can compete with. This is the reason why most of the world greatest sport cars are equipped with an four-wheel-drive.
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